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Yellow was adopted as the standard color for school buses in 1939 at a national conference of school transportation representatives. The agreed-on shade of yellow was dubbed “National School Bus Chrome.” It’s now known as “National School Bus Glossy Yellow.” Yellow is a highly visible color that helps other drivers see school buses, which is particularly important when they are stopped to pick up or drop off passengers.
School bus stop laws vary slightly by state. Generally, when a school bus is stopped to pick up students, with its red lights flashing and its stop arm extended, vehicles traveling in the same direction have to stop for the bus. Vehicles traveling in the opposite also have to stop in some cases, depending on the type of roadway (for example, whether there is a raised median in the middle of the street). See the school bus stop requirements for specific states here.
Since 1977, school buses have been required to have a passive form of occupant protection called compartmentalization — a closely spaced, energy-absorbing padded seating design. This has been one of the key factors in the yellow bus’ record as the safest form of transportation for students. Compartmentalization is particularly effective in frontal and rear impacts when students are seated properly, but federal safety authorities have found that three-point restraints can enhance protection for school bus passengers in severe side-impact and rollover crashes.
California is currently the only state with an effective requirement for three-point belts on school buses. Three other states require lap belts on school buses: Florida, New Jersey and New York. Texas and Louisiana have passed school bus seat belt bills, but both were contingent on funding being allocated to pay for the restraints. Since those two states’ mandates remain unfunded, they have not been enforced.
Some school districts in states that don’t require three-point belts in school buses have voluntarily implemented the restraints in their fleets.
Federally, three-point belts are required only on small school buses — more precisely, those with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less, which account for a small proportion of the school bus market.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has long declined to mandate seat belts on large school buses. However, the agency took up the topic again in 2015, culminating with then-Administrator Dr. Mark Rosekind stating at an industry conference in November 2015 that "every child on every school bus should have a three-point seat belt.” However, as of this writing, the agency has not proposed to make that a mandate.
Many other states have considered school bus seat belt legislation (sometimes year after year) but haven’t passed it.
How many seats are on a bus? The biggest school buses — the flat-front, transit-style models that are known as Type Ds — can carry up to 90 passengers.
Conventional school buses — with a hood in front and the entrance door behind the front wheels, aka Type C models — typically have a capacity of about 80 passengers. These capacities are calculated with three students per seat.
Small school buses — Type A models, which are built on van chassis — typically have a capacity in the range of 12 to 32 passenger seats.
The biggest school buses are about 40 feet long. Small school buses are typically about 20 feet long.
Large school buses have a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of up to about 36,000 pounds. Small school buses typically have a GVWR in the range of 9,000 to 14,000 pounds. GVWR includes the weight of passengers, so these weights would be for fully loaded school buses.
Most school buses have two axles, with the bigger models having two wheels on the front axle and four wheels on the dual axle, for a total of six wheels. The smallest school buses have two wheels on both axles, for a total of four wheels. Some of the older coach-type school buses have three axles, like motorcoaches (aka charter or tour buses).
As of the 2022-23 school year, there are about 547,000 school buses in the U.S.
As of the 2022-23 school year, school buses in the U.S. transport about 20.5 million public school students each day.
Those ridges, known as “rub rails,” help protect the school bus body panels from damage. They are typically painted black to contrast with the yellow, but at least one state requires the rub rails themselves to also be yellow.
Managing challenging behaviors on the school bus can be a complex task, but there are several strategies that can be effective in addressing these behaviors. Here are some strategies that school bus drivers can use to manage challenging behaviors on the bus:
Overall, managing challenging behaviors on the bus requires a proactive and collaborative approach. By establishing clear rules and expectations, reinforcing positive behavior, providing accommodations, and using de-escalation techniques, bus drivers can help promote a positive and safe environment for all students on the bus.
The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act is a federal law that aims to ensure the enrollment, attendance, and success of homeless children and youth in school. One of the key provisions of the McKinney-Vento Act is related to school transportation.
Under the McKinney-Vento Act, homeless students are entitled to transportation to and from their school of origin. The term "school of origin" refers to the school that the student attended when they became homeless or the school they last attended before becoming homeless. Transportation to the school of origin must be provided at no cost to the student or their family.
The Act requires school districts to provide transportation services that are comparable to those provided to non-homeless students. This may include providing bus passes, paying for public transportation, or providing door-to-door transportation services. The transportation services provided must also be consistent with the student's best interests and the most feasible means of ensuring the student's attendance at their school of origin.
In addition, the McKinney-Vento Act requires school districts to ensure that homeless students have access to all of the same programs and services available to non-homeless students. This includes transportation to extracurricular activities, such as sports practices or after-school programs.
Overall, the McKinney-Vento Act helps to ensure that homeless students have access to the transportation services they need to attend school and succeed academically. School districts must take steps to identify homeless students and provide them with the transportation services they need to continue their education.
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